NASA – The Expedition 27 crew photographed this sunset over western South America from aboard the International Space Station. The station crew sees, on average, sixteen sunrises and sunsets during a 24-hour orbital period. Each changeover between day and night on the ground is marked by the terminator, or line separating the sunlit side of Earth from the side in darkness. While the terminator is conceptualized as a hard boundary–and is frequently presented as such in graphics and visualizations–in reality the boundary between light and dark is diffuse due to scattering of light by Earth’s atmosphere.
This zone of diffuse lighting is experienced as dusk or twilight on the ground–while the sun is no longer visible, some illumination is still present due to light scattering over the local horizon. The terminator is visible in this photograph trending across the image from lower left to upper right. This panoramic view across central South America, looking towards the northeast, was acquired at approximately 7:37 p.m. local time. Layers of Earth’s atmosphere, colored bright white to deep blue, are visible extending across the horizon. The highest cloud tops have a reddish glow from the direct light of the setting sun while lower clouds are in twilight. The Salar de Coipasa, a large salt lake in Bolivia, is dimly visible on the night side of the terminator. The salar provides a geographic reference point that allows the location and viewing orientation of the image to be determined.
By Rebecca Boyle – Einstein’s theories of relativity hold that space and time are woven together into a four-dimensional fabric, and that a weighty body like a planet or a star depresses that fabric, like someone sitting on a chair or a trampoline.
Orbiting 400 miles above the Earth in a polar orbit, GP-B contains four gyroscopes made of quartz-silicon spheres that are considered nearly perfect. It has a telescope that stared at a single star, IM Pegasi, while the satellite made its rounds. If the Earth’s mass did not affect spacetime, the gyroscopes would point the same direction forever. But they didn’t, experiencing teeny but measurable changes in the direction of their spin. This is exactly what Einstein predicted back in 1916. more> http://is.gd/K9NxHO
NASA – NASA’s Discovery Program gives scientists the opportunity to dig deep into their imaginations and find innovative ways to unlock the mysteries of the solar system. When it began in 1992, this program represented a breakthrough in the way NASA explores space.
NASA has selected three science investigations from which it will pick one potential 2016 mission to:
- look at Mars’ interior for the first time;
- study an extraterrestrial sea on one of Saturn’s moons; or
- study in unprecedented detail the surface of a comet’s nucleus.
Each investigation team will receive $3 million to conduct its mission’s concept phase or preliminary design studies and analyses. After another detailed review in 2012 of the concept studies, NASA will select one to continue development efforts leading up to launch. The selected mission will be cost-capped at $425 million, not including launch vehicle funding.
The planetary missions selected to pursue preliminary design studies are:
- Geophysical Monitoring Station (GEMS) would study the structure and composition of the interior of Mars and advance understanding of the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets.
- Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) would provide the first direct exploration of an ocean environment beyond Earth by landing in, and floating on, a large methane-ethane sea on Saturn’s moon Titan.
- Comet Hopper would study cometary evolution by landing on a comet multiple times and observing its changes as it interacts with the sun.
The proposals selected for technology development are:
- Primitive Material Explorer (PriME) would develop a mass spectrometer that would provide highly precise measurements of the chemical composition of a comet and explore the objects’ role in delivering volatiles to Earth.
- Whipple: Reaching into the Outer Solar System would develop and validate a technique called blind occultation that could lead to the discovery of various celestial objects in the outer solar system and revolutionize our understanding of the area’s structure.
- NEOCam would develop a telescope to study the origin and evolution of NEOs and study the present risk of Earth-impact. It would generate a catalog of objects and accurate infrared measurements to provide a better understanding of small bodies that cross our planet’s orbit.
Posted in Economic development, Net, Science, SPACE WATCH, Technology, Transportation
Tagged Aviation, Capital, Credit, Industrial economy, Manufacturing, Organization, Physics, Space, Super regions, Test & certification