X-rays From A Young Supernova Remnant
NASA – More than fifty years ago, a supernova was discovered in M83, a spiral galaxy about 15 million light years from Earth. Astronomers have used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the first detection of X-rays emitted by the debris from this explosion.
Named SN 1957D because it was the fourth supernova to be discovered in the year 1957, it is one of only a few located outside of the Milky Way galaxy that is detectable, in both radio and optical wavelengths, decades after its explosion was observed. In 1981, astronomers saw the remnant of the exploded star in radio waves, and then in 1987 they detected the remnant at optical wavelengths, years after the light from the explosion itself became undetectable.
A relatively short observation — about 14 hours long — from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory in 2000 and 2001 did not detect any X-rays from the remnant of SN 1957D. However, a much longer observation obtained in 2010 and 2011, totaling nearly 8 and 1/2 days of Chandra time, did reveal the presence of X-ray emission. The X-ray brightness in 2000 and 2001 was about the same as or lower than in this deep image.
This new Chandra image of M83 is one of the deepest X-ray observations ever made of a spiral galaxy beyond our own. This full-field view of the spiral galaxy shows the low, medium, and high-energy X-rays observed by Chandra in red, green, and blue respectively.
The new X-ray data from the remnant of SN 1957D provide important information about the nature of this explosion that astronomers think happened when a massive star ran out of fuel and collapsed. The distribution of X-rays with energy suggests that SN 1957D contains a neutron star, a rapidly spinning, dense star formed when the core of pre-supernova star collapsed. This neutron star, or pulsar, may be producing a cocoon of charged particles moving at close to the speed of light known as a pulsar wind nebula.
If this interpretation is confirmed, the pulsar in SN 1957D is observed at an age of 55 years, one of the youngest pulsars ever seen. The remnant of SN 1979C in the galaxy M100 contains another candidate for the youngest pulsar, but astronomers are still unsure whether there is a black hole or a pulsar at the center of SN 1979C. Image Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/STScI/K.Long et al., Optical: NASA/STScI
- Galactic Views (53) (theneteconomy.wordpress.com)
- Galactic Views (52) (theneteconomy.wordpress.com)
- Galactic Views (42) (theneteconomy.wordpress.com)
Posted in Nature, Science, SPACE WATCH
Tagged Astronomy, Chandra, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Milky Way, NASA, Neutron star, Pulsar, Space, Spiral galaxy, X-ray
Editorial – Just how serious is the scale of this fraud? Some say that the amount tied to LIBOR is $360 trillion; some say $500 trillion, while others put it as high as $800 trillion.
“Manipulating the LIBOR is a big deal, because it affects the cost of money for almost everyone,” writes Gretchen Morgenson. As Dylan Matthews put it, “A bank that mucks with the LIBOR rate isn’t just playing around with esoteric derivatives that will only affect other traders. They’re playing with the real economy that most of us participate in every day.”
So outrage is entirely appropriate. more> http://tinyurl.com/btydxqy
- The Libor Scandal: Three Things to Know (theneteconomy.wordpress.com)
- UBS still plagued by Libor scandal (worldradio.ch)
- Why There Is No Solution To The LIBOR Scandal (businessinsider.com)
- Fair Game: Libor, Mortgage Rates and Wall Street – Fair Game (nytimes.com)
- RBS boss expects bank to be fined over Libor scandal (scotsman.com)
- RBS next for fine over Libor scandal (standard.co.uk)
- RBS expects fine over Libor scandal (walesonline.co.uk)
- Berkshire and the start of Libor lawsuits, MarketWatch
- Libor Review to Look into Scrapping Rate, Kiran Stacey and Caroline Binham,FT/CNBC
- Libor non-scandal of the day, Citigroup edition, Felix Salmon, Reuters
- A Different Take on LIBOR, John Mauldin, Minyanville
- Berkshire Bank Sues 16 Others Over Alleged Libor Manipulation, Alexander Eichler, huffingtonpost.com
SLIDE SHOW (5)
By Charles Murray – The Italian inventor Claudio Torghele spent six years perfecting the mechanized vendor, with the idea that it would do more than simply zap a frozen pizza with microwaves. His machine mechanically mixes the dough from bags of water and flour and then passes it through a series of shaping and pre-heating stations that create a flattened and partially baked pizza base. A conveying tray moves the preheated crust beneath metering devices that squirt on the tomato sauce. Other distribution components add cheese, sausage, ham, and fresh vegetables. The machine then moves its product to an infrared oven for about a minute before putting it in a cardboard container and sliding it through a slot in the front of the machine. more> http://tinyurl.com/bp4nx4e
By Gerry Smith – To help close the digital divide, the Federal Communications Commission is offering phone companies millions of dollars to expand high-speed Internet service to rural Americans.
But the nation’s two largest phone companies — AT&T and Verizon — have told the FCC to keep the money. more> http://tinyurl.com/c6mxnc6
Posted in Broadband, FCC, Net, telecom
Tagged AT&T, Broadband, Broadband Internet access, Digital divide, FCC, Federal Communications Commission, Internet, United States, Verizon Communications