Why is model-based systems engineering (MBSE) important for aircraft development ?
Siemens – The heart of the problem is that engineering organizations are not set up to tackle the integrated complexity of the current aircraft. In the past, aircraft were simply complicated systems.
Engineers used to develop an aircraft as “a system-of-systems” split into various isolated subsystems. Separate departments would individually design separate subsystems and very often distribute the work according to various Air Transport Association, or ATA, chapter numbers. For example, ATA 32 is Landing Gear and ATA 24 is electrical power.
So, still today in most cases, the complete aircraft development ecosystem, including suppliers and risk-sharing partners or RSPs, still communicates through documents.
How can communicating through documents successfully translate the integrated system functionality and complex dynamic interaction including control software that is the modern-day aircraft?
Well, this so-called “document-based-systems-engineering” is one of the key symptoms that cause these high-end, experienced and professional aerospace organizations to systematically suffer integration problems. more> http://tinyurl.com/qg7zmhw
Posted in Technology, Economy, Transportation, Science, Business, Product
Tagged Technology, Business improvement, Manufacturing, Industrial economy, Siemens, Aircraft, System-of-systems, Air Transport Association, ATA
Modeling the truck as a whole: Scania uses LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim for testing approach
SIEMENS – Just how do you design a truck?
And especially a truck that needs to haul loads of timber out of snowy Scandinavian forests or coal out of dusty, unpredictable Indonesian mines?
Or, simply be able to run dependably 24 hours a day, seven days a week on the highway?
Precision is the answer for Scania. Obtaining this precision equals the right type of design early in the process. This is just one of the reasons why this global truck manufacturer uses LMS Imagine.Lab™ software. The engineering team counts on this tool to simulate the entire vehicle dynamics, including the hydraulics and the driveline, and to couple various systems such as electronics to create a “virtual” truck.
A leader in the truck and bus market, the Swedish multinational was founded in 1891. Since then, the company has produced and delivered more than 1,400,000 trucks and buses for heavy transportation. You can imagine that a lot has changed since Gustaf Eriksson designed a usable petrol engine in 1902, the year the company manufactured its first truck. more> http://tinyurl.com/l3er3qc
Posted in Technology, Economy, Transportation, Business, Education, History, Construction, Product
Tagged Technology, Super regions, Business improvement, Manufacturing, PLM, Siemens, Truck
Siemens – LMS controls engineering is an engineering discipline that deals with designing and implementing control systems to achieve a desired overall system behavior. It is the backbone of “smart” products. In its basic form, a control system lets you measure a performance factor in the product using sensors. Based on this measurement data, you can adjust the behavior of product to regulate the performance factor towards a desired objective.
The first step is to understand the requirements. You can design a control system that can meet multiple objectives, but it is important to understand the different objectives and the interactions. How fast should a product react to change in the system? What about a change in external conditions?
You need to get a big picture view. Some of the requirements could set performance goals, which have to be optimized, while others serve as constraints to be satisfied. Some of these requirements can be competing against each other and the design should carefully trade off between competing requirements.
Then we draw out a boundary diagram of the system architecture. What are the components of the system that can be measured by sensors, and which system properties can be changed by actuation to satisfy the requirements? At this point, we do a requirement feasibility analysis to see if the existing sensors and actuators can actually meet the system objectives. Such analysis is mostly done today using system simulation with computer models. Examining the analysis results, we can see if the conceptual system architecture is really possible. If yes, we start a detailed design.
We start by dividing the controller into units according to the required functions. When designing an engine control system, for example, we have to make sure that we are delivering the required torque. To do this, you design a torque management function that “measures” the torque demand through the driver accelerator pedal input. Then this is translated into appropriate airflow and spark-timing actuations to deliver the demanded torque at the engine crank shaft.
In parallel, you look at the fuel management function that seeks to minimize fuel consumption while delivering the required fuel to generate torque. The emission control and thermal management functions also impose constraints on how the airflow, spark timing and fuel system are actuated to ensure that exhaust emissions are minimized and the engine operates in an efficient temperature range. It is a bit like completing a 10,000 piece jigsaw puzzle.
To realize the control system within the overall architecture, we start to define the interfaces and populate the various system functions to fulfill requirements. Today, computer models of the controller units are built to virtualize the functions. The units and their interfaces are rendered graphically to assist the engineers in rapidly evolving design processes. In parallel, we design and implement test cases to make sure that the control system works and meets requirements. more> http://tinyurl.com/nme6utm
Posted in Technology, Economy, Transportation, Business, Education, Product
Tagged Technology, Business improvement, Manufacturing, Industrial economy, PLM, Siemens, Controls engineering
Model driven simulation and validation in the automotive industry
SIEMENS – SystemsVTrends in the automotive industry are driving demand for more fuel efficient vehicles and reduced emissions while consumer demands are driving increased product complexity. A model-based approach that leverages both 1D and 3D simulations can significantly improve the ability of design and engineering teams to validate system performance early in the development process.
Using a model-based systems engineering approach allows companies to more quickly assess the choices they make in the concept phase. These models are typically in the form of 1D models and are modeled using LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim™ before any detailed geometry has been created. These 1D system models capture performance capabilities of each subsystem and then can simulate the entire system together. The benefit of a model-based simulation approach in early concept stages of systems engineering is that it enables:
- Earlier selection of the best architecture
- An ability to derive targets for sub-systems
- Re-usability to avoid redundant work
- Ability to quickly assess downstream implications of a change
The detailed design phase is where 3D simulation takes place on detailed geometry. This is where more common computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques like FEA, CFD, thermal analysis, multi-body dynamics (motion), and other types of analyses can be performed using a modern simulation environment like NX® CAE.
The challenge simulation faces today is how to cascade targets from systems down to subsystems and components, and how to leverage 1D simulations to deliver the necessary boundary conditions for more detailed simulation and analyses with 3D models. more> http://tinyurl.com/pjkd3hh
Shipbuilding industry at a crossroads
Siemens – On February 20, 2014, the Global Shipbuilding Executive Summit (GSES) members, which included more than 80 executives from government and industry from both the USA and Europe, focused on four areas:
- Pre-contract award process
- Design and engineering processes
- Shipyard productivity improvements
- Shipbuilding process improvements.
There were two groups of 10 members each that focused on developing a specific set of steps to improve each of the four focus areas over the next 15–18 months, including setting a set of goals for the next GSES in February 2015 and selecting an executive mentor to help guide each team. At the conclusion to the summit, the members voted on the top recommendations to pursue over the next 12 months. There were eight of them.
The top three recommendations were:
- Collaboratively develop requirements that are aligned with and consistent with budgets;
- Reduce uniqueness in future ship classes, i.e., common systems; and
- Optimize the material flow through shipyards.
The other five of the eight recommendations will be considered in the next phase of this long-term program between government and industry to improve shipbuilding productivity and lower the overall total ownership cost of future ship classes and fleets. Now, cross-functional teams are being formed to pursue each of the top three recommendations. They will meet monthly and have quarterly reviews with the mentors and a final progress report to GSES VI in February 2015.
The top priority for each recommendation is for the results of team research to have significant and measureable impact on the cost of future ship classes and to share these recommendations with shipbuilders around the world to improve shipbuilding productivity via technical papers, presentations and briefings. more> http://tinyurl.com/nmvn3ee
Posted in Technology, Economy, Energy & emissions, Business, Education, Construction, Product
Tagged Technology, Business improvement, Software, Manufacturing, PLM, Siemens
Second North Sea platform linking up offshore wind farms installed
SIEMENS – Nordic Yards has constructed the topside for BorWin2 in its Warnemünde shipyard as a one-off job tailor-made for Siemens.
Once it goes on line, BorWin2’s output of 800 MW will provide wind power for 800,000 households on the mainland.
The offshore platform is 51 meters wide, 72 meters long and 25 meters high – and if the two permanently installed cranes are counted, the overall height adds up to 40 meters. Weighing almost 12,000 tons, the giant steel structure has been designed to spend the next 30 years on rough seas.
During that time, the material will be exposed to extreme conditions, especially in winter when the spray on the surface freezes to ice, which makes particularly tough demands of the paintwork and the anti-corrosion coating. The photo shows the platform as built, before the anti-corrosion coating was applied. 28 months have passed from the start of work to leaving the dock; the final touches will be made to the HVDC platform at sea.
The cable route runs through the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2009. To protect the flora and fauna, strict rules apply in this nature preservation area: for instance, the cables had to be laid within a certain time window and using special equipment to minimize nuisance and impact.
The converter tower for Diele has undergone advance high-voltage shop testing in Siemens’ own test bed in Dresden to verify the resistance of the insulation. The converter technology has been installed both in the onshore station and offshore on the platform. HVDC Plus technology is used on the platform to convert the alternating current generated by the wind farms into low-loss direct current. This is then transported to the mainland via a submarine cable, with a total loss of less than four percent.
The heart of the BorWin 2 grid connection is the BorWin beta offshore converter platform, which houses the Siemens system for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission. Successfully installing this system on the high seas was the most critical part of the project.
Apart from constructing and installing the offshore platform itself, which transforms the alternating current generated into direct current for low-loss transmission, a submarine cable had to be laid and a converter station set up on the mainland. That is where the power delivered from the offshore generating installations is converted into alternating current for feed into the national grid. more> http://tinyurl.com/ljkzbds
Posted in Technology, Economy, Energy, Business, Nature
Tagged Super regions, Business improvement, Jobs, Manufacturing, Industrial economy, Siemens, wind energy
In simulation we trust
SIEMENS – Simulation technology has a lot to offer to mold manufacturing. It’s a matter of recognizing the problems that it can help to solve.
Beginning with NX™ version 8.5, state-of-the-art mold flow analysis technology has been added to NX ‘s powerful arsenal of validation tools. NX additionally includes data quality checking, molded part validation, interference/clearance analysis, tool kinematics simulation and cooling and strength analyses. The new mold flow analysis technology, EasyFill Analysis, integrates Moldex3D capabilities into NX to help designers save time setting up simulations, checking designs, and evaluating design alternatives.
NX Mold Design can include directly integrated mold flow simulation capabilities that help save time setting up simulations, checking designs and evaluating design alternatives. more> http://tinyurl.com/pkl2y3k